For many educators unfamiliar with designing critical reflection activities and assignments, reflection is something that happens after an experience and that reflection is only appropriate for certain types of situations. In reality, critical reflection is a fundamental process of learning and meaning making. When getting started it's important to keep the following in mind:
- Critical reflection can be designed to generate a variety of learning outcomes. These include knowledge, skills, as well as attitudes, values, dispositions and behaviors.
- Everything is reflection worthy. As a result, it's important to guide learners to attend dimensions of experiences that are of interest.
- Guidance matters. When designing critical reflection activities and assignments, the guidance provided, whether via written prompts, oral or graphic facilitation, should assist learners to articulate and document their learning coherently and cohesively.
In light of this, it's useful to remember, what have been termed the "4 C's of Critical Reflection." [Eyler and Giles]