Models of Critical Reflection

4 C's of Critical Reflection

Provide learning opportunities to reflect before, during, and after the experience. The most common error that designers make is to limit reflection until after the experience. Improvements in CR capacity improve with time, practice and scaffolding. When integrating only within a course but across a program of study in order to build capacity for metacognition and critical consiousness building. Remember anything is reflection worthy. It is helpful to use a pre-mid-post structure, relative to the unit of time [session, week, semester, etc.], that focuses learner attention on changes in thier assumptions and reasoning processes and on progress toward meeting objectives.

Experience, including service and community-based experiences, bring theories, concepts and statistics to life in palpable, contextualized and unscripted ways. Effective designers of CR, make sure to draw clear connections between the experiences and the frame/lens through that should be applied to the experience. Designers can use a variety of means to communicate the connection between academic content, as well as, other categories of learning [ professional, civic, personal, etc.] and "the experience" [e.g. syllabus, assignment instructions, lecture, etc.]

Critical Reflection requires stretching learners outside of thier comfort zone to explore more difficult or challenging questions. It requires that the facilitator balance challenging learners while creating a supportive, safe space for learners to express doubt, frustration, and inspriation.

The mode of reflection/reflection mechanism should reflect the setting, be scaffolded appropriate to the learner.